What is thyroid and what are the symptoms of thyroid

Today we will learn what is thyroid and how much we should pay attention to it, as well as what the symptoms of thyroid .

What is thyroid and what are the symptoms of thyroid

The thyroid is a type of gland that is located exactly in the front of the throat. This gland controls your body's metabolism. That is, the food we eat has the potential to turn it into energy.It also affects your heart, muscles, bones and cholesterol. Thyroid is also called Silent Killer. Because its symptoms do not appear together.Symptoms of thyroid problem in men depends on the type of problem, it can be due to any underlying cause, overall health, lifestyle changes and ongoing treatment with drugs. Thyroid in Children Often, parents are responsible for the thyroid problem in children. If the mother has a thyroid problem during pregnancy, the child may also have a thyroid problem. Apart from this, the mother's diet also affects the child's thyroid function.If there is a lack of iodized foods in the mother's diet chart during pregnancy, then it affects the baby.Even so the symptoms of thyroid problems are common in the elderly, teenagers and children. But if children have thyroid problems, their physical and mental development is affected. If there is a thyroid problem in children, contact the pediatrician.

Thyroid Causes 

Thyroiditis - It is simply an enlarged thyroid gland (goitre), in which the ability to make thyroid hormones is reduced.

soya products - Excessive use of soya products in the form of isoflavone intensive soy protein, capsules, and powder may also be due to the thyroid.

The medicines - Sometimes the adverse effects (side effects) of drugs are also caused by the thyroid.

Hypothalamic disease - Thyroid problems are also caused by the pituitary gland because it does not indicate the thyroid gland to produce hormones.

deficiency of Iodine - Iodine deficiency or excessive use in food also increases the problem of thyroid.

Radiation therapy - Due to radiation therapy of head, neck and chest or due to radiation treatment for tonsils, lymph nodes, thymus gland problem or acne.

Tension - When the level of stress increases, it affects our thyroid gland the most. This gland increases the secretion of hormones.

Family history - If someone in your family has a thyroid problem, you are more likely to get thyroid. This is the most important cause of thyroid.

Graves' disease - Graves' disease is the biggest cause of thyroid. In this, the secretion of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is greatly increased. Graves 'disease mostly affects women between the ages of 20 and 40, because Graves' disease is a hereditary disorder related to genetic factors, so thyroid disease can affect many people in the same family.

Pregnancy - The next cause of thyroid is pregnancy, including the postpartum period. Pregnancy is a time in a woman's life when her entire body undergoes massive changes, and she remains stressed.

Menopause - Menopause is also a cause of thyroid because many types of hormonal changes occur in a woman during menopause. Which sometimes causes thyroid.

Symptoms Of Thyroid

Symptoms of the disease include skin hair problems, excessive hair loss. Itching is associated with the thyroid gland. Also, do not neglect if there is excessive days in the throat or swelling.

Common symptoms of thyroid include early fatigue, body fatigue, exhaustion of energy after a little work, depression, start feeling depressed, memory loss and muscle and joint pain.

Pain in the joints can be a thyroid without any physical labor and unbearable pain in the joints. Even if you lift a normal weight, you may still have muscle and joint pain. Some people even have ants in their hands.

Depression or discomfort also points to the thyroid, in fact the cause is not sufficient to investigate it. Along with depression, excessive sleepiness or lack of sleepiness can also be a cause of thyroid problems and discomfort at work.

Although fatigue is a normal routine, if you experience fatigue, you have some problems. The cause may also be thyroid. If this problem is severe then fatigue will increase. It also increases the discomfort.

Weight Loss Weight loss without doing anything means that you are suffering from any illness and may also have thyroid. If you have hyperthyroidism, you lose weight and if you have hypothyroidism, then you gain weight. Because of this, the body's immunity is reduced and therefore many other problems are started in the body.

By recognizing all these problems as common, most people continue to ignore what can later prove to be dangerous and sometimes even fatal.

What are thyroid problems?

The hormones produced from Thyroid Gland affect all metabolic processes that occur in the body. Thyroid disorders can range from minor illness like goitre to life-threatening cancer. But the most common thyroid problem is the lack of proper production of thyroid hormones. There are two types of problems in this -

Hyperthyroidism : excess hormones are produced

Hypothyroidism : production of less than necessary hormones

These problems can cause many problems, but if properly diagnosed and treated, they can be managed well.

Hyperthyroidism  (Overactive Thyroid)

Sometimes doctors also call Hyperthyroidism as overactive thyroid.

The hormones released from the thyroid gland affect almost all parts of the body, skin, brain, muscles, nothing is untouched by it. Their most important thing is to control the energy being used by the body, which we know as metabolism. How the heart beats in this, how the temperature of the body is controlled and how we burn our calories; It is all included.

Causes of Hyperthyroidism

1. Graves’ disease

It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. This is a type of autoimmune condition in which the immune system of our body creates an antibody which causes the thyroid gland to release more thyroid hormone in more quantity. If one person in the family has this disease then other people may also have problems. Usually this problem occurs to younger women.

2. Thyroiditis 

Thyroid inflammation is known as thyroiditis. In thyroiditis, a virus or a problem in the immune system causes the thyroid gland to become swollen and to leak hormones into the bloodstream.

3.Thyroid nodule

In this problem, one or more lumps or nodules grow in the thyroid gland, which increases the activity of the gland and causes more thyroid hormone to be released in your blood.

4. Excess iodine

If you consume iodine in excess, then the problem of hyperthyroidism can also arise.Actually, our body uses iodine to make thyroid hormone and when it starts getting more and more then the hormone also becomes more and it becomes a problem.

5. Thyroid medications

Hyperthyroidism can also be caused by taking too much thyroid hormone medication. If you are undergoing treatment for hypothyroidism, never take an extra dose of medicine without asking a doctor, even if you have forgotten to take the medicine before.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

Often the symptoms of hyperthyroidism are not very clear and are similar to other diseases. If you have a very mild form of hyperthyroidism then you may not see any symptoms. But when this problem happens, then you have trouble in doing daily things.

Anxiety, nervousness and irritability

Weight loss despite increased appetite

Increase the frequency of bowel movement and loose stool

Sleep problems

Having double vision problems

Eye drops

Hair problems such as breakage, thinning and loss

Heart beat being irregular, especially among older people

Changes in the menstrual cycle, including mild bleeding and decreased frequency of periods.

Muscle weakness, especially in the thighs and upper arms

Rapid fingernails

Trembling hands

to sweat

Skin thinning

Rapid deterioration of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism is called Thyrotoxic crisis and it is very important to get it treated immediately.

It may cause the following symptoms


Be confused

Loss of awareness


Be restless

Pulse run


Hypothyroidism is also called underactive thyroid. The thyroid gland of a person suffering from this disease does not produce the proper amount of thyroid hormone. If these hormones are reduced in the body, then the process of the body slows down. That is, the body produces less energy and our metabolism slows down.


It can be of two types:

If Hypothyroidism occurs due to a problem in the thyroid gland directly, it is called Primary Hypothyroidism.

If any other problem impedes the thyroid gland's ability to produce thyroid hormone, it is called Secondary Hypothyroidism.

Causes of hypothyroidism

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. This is a type of autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the thyroid gland. When Hashimotose thyroiditis occurs, the body produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it. Thyroiditis can also be caused by viral infection.

Other causes of hypothyroidism are:

Radiation therapy around the throat: which can be given while treating cancer.

Radioactive iodine treatment: If RAI is used in the treatment of overactive thyroid gland, the cells of thyroid gland are destroyed due to radiation and hypothyroidism occurs.

Due to some special medicines: Some medicines used in the treatment of heart, cancer and psychiatric problems such as -amiodarone (Cordarone), lithium, interferon alpha, and interleukin-2; The thyroid reduces or stops the production of hormones, in which case the problem of hypothyroidism starts.

Thyroid surgery: If a treatment removes the thyroid gland, for example: to treat hyperthyroidism, then the person becomes hypothyroidism.

Iodine deficiency in food: Our body does not make iodine by itself, so we should take it in food. For this, iodized salt, eggs, fish and dairy products should be consumed.

Pregnancy: After pregnancy, the production of thyroid hormone increases in many women, leading to hyperthyroidism first and hypothyroidism after falling production. In most cases, this problem ends in a few months.

Thyroid disease at birth: In some children, thyroid gland does not develop properly or does not work properly since birth. This condition is called congenital hypothyroidism.

Disorders in pituitary gland: This is very rare, but sometimes thyroid hormone production gets messed up when there is a problem in the pituitary gland. Actually, the pituitary gland produces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that tells the thyroid how much hormone to make and release.

Hypothalamus disorder: This is also very rare, in which the hypothalamus in the brain does not produce TRH hormone, due to which the pituitary gland TSH hormone gets affected and ultimately the production of thyroid hormone is disturbed.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

Changes in menstrual cycle



Hair loss

Dry skin


Be more sensitive to cold

Slow heart rate

Thyroid gland swelling (goiter)

Sudden weight gain or difficulty in losing weight.